Peritonitis is an infection caused by an inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, known as the peritoneum. The peritoneum, a thin, clear membrane, normally covers all the abdominal organs and the inside walls of the abdomen.
Most often, peritonitis is caused by the introduction of an infection from a perforation of the bowel such as a ruptured appendix or diverticulum. Other sources include perforations of the stomach, intestine, gallbladder, or appendix. Pelvic inflammatory disease in women is also a common cause of peritonitis. Peritonitis can also develop after surgery if bacteria enters into the abdomen during an operation.
The following are the most common symptoms of peritonitis. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Severe abdominal pain, aggravated by any motion
Nausea and vomiting
Abdominal tenderness or distention
Fluid in the abdomen
Unable to have a bowel movement or pass gas
Low urine output
The symptoms of peritonitis may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.
Quick diagnosis of peritonitis is vital as complications can occur quickly. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination (which may show abdominal tension and tenderness), diagnostic tests for peritonitis may include the following:
X-rays. A diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
Laboratory tests. These tests are done to identify the infectious organism.
Specific treatment for peritonitis will be determined by your doctor based on:
Your age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of the condition
Your tolerance of specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Treatment of peritonitis is generally aimed at treating the underlying condition. Often, emergency exploratory surgery is needed, especially when appendicitis, a perforated peptic ulcer, or diverticulitis may be the cause of the infection. Prompt treatment is extremely important as major complications can occur quickly. Once peritonitis has been diagnosed, antibiotics are given immediately. Peritonitis can be fatal if not treated right away.